Settlement Commission Proceedings under Income Tax Act

Issue: (I) Whether section 234B applies to proceedings of the Settlement Commission under Chapter XIX-A of Income Tax Act, 1961?

(II) If answer to the above question is in the affirmative, what is the terminal point for levy of such interest – Whether such interest should be computed up to the date of the Order under section 245D(1) or up to the date of the Order of the Commission under section 245D(4)?

(III) Whether the Settlement Commission could reopen its concluded proceedings by invoking section 154 of the said Act so as to levy interest under section 234B, though it was not so done in the original proceedings?


(I) Whether Sections 234A, 234B and 234C are applicable to Chapter XIX-A proceedings?

Though Chapter XIX-A is a self-contained Code, the procedure to be followed by the Settlement Commission under sections 245C and 245D in the matter of computation of undisclosed income; in the matter of computation of additional income tax payable on such income with interest thereon; the filing of settlement application indicating the amount of income returned in the return of income and the additional income tax payable on the undisclosed income to be aggregated as total income shows that Chapter XIX-A indicates aggregation of incomes so as to constitute total income which indicates that the special procedure under Chapter XIX-A has inbuilt mechanism of computing total income which is nothing but assessment (computation of total income). To elaborate, under section 245C(1B), if the applicant has furnished a return in respect of his total income, tax shall be calculated on the aggregate of total income returned and the income disclosed in the settlement application as if such aggregate were total income. Under the Act, tax is payable on the total income as computed in accordance with the provisions of the Act. Thus, section 143(3) provision is sought to be incorporated in section 245C. When Parliament uses the words “as if such aggregate would constitute total income”, it presupposes that under the special procedure the aggregation of the returned income plus income disclosed would result in computation of total income which is the basis for the levy of tax on the undisclosed income which is nothing but “assessment”. Similarly, section 245C(1C) provides for deductions from the total income computed in terms of section 245C(1B). Thus, the special procedure under sections 245C and 245D in Chapter XIX-A shows that a special type of computation of total income is engrafted in the said provisions which is nothing but assessment which takes place at section 245D(1) stage. However, in that computation, one finds that provisions dealing with a regular assessment, self-assessment and levy and computation of interest for default in payment of advance tax, etc. are engrafted.

(II) Terminal point for the levy of interest – Whether interest is payable under Chapter XIX-A up to the date of the order under section 245D(1) or up to the date of the order under section 245D(4)?

The answer lies in the provisions of the proviso to Sections 245C(1), 245C(1B) and 245C(1C), 245D(4) and 245F(3) which bring in the concepts of returned income, self-assessment, aggregation of income returned and income disclosed as if it is total income; levy of interest under section 215(3) read with section 245D(4); increase of interest under sections 234A(4) and 234B(4) read with section 245D(4) as also sections 140A(1A) and (1B) read with sections 234A and 234B.

For example, section 140A deals with self-assessment which is different from regular assessment. Under section 140A(1) where tax is payable on the basis of any return furnished by the assessee [see proviso (a) to section 245C(1)], after taking into account tax paid, the assessee shall be liable to pay such tax with interest payable for default under section 234B in payment of advance tax before furnishing the return. This position is clarified by sections 140A(1A) and (1B) under which inter alia interest payable for default in payment of advance tax under section 234A shall be computed on the amount of tax on the total income as declared in the return minus the advance tax paid.

Similarly, it is clarified vide sub-section (1B) to section 140A that interest payable under section 234B for default in payment of advance tax shall be computed on an amount equal to the assessed tax [same words are used in section 234B(1)] or on the amount by which the advance tax falls short of the assessed tax. However, what is “assessed tax” for the purposes of section 140A is explained by Explanation. It says that assessed tax will be tax on the total income as declared in the return minus the amount of tax deducted at source or collected at source in accordance with the provisions of Chapter XVII (which covers sections 207, 209 and 215 of the Act).

Now, section 245C(1) is voluntary disclosure by the assessee of his undisclosed income. Under section 245C(1), the assessee has to mention in his settlement application the additional amount of tax payable by him on such undisclosed income. Under proviso (a), the application for settlement shall not be entertained till the assessee has furnished the return of income which he was required to file under the Act to the extent of his income. Under proviso (b), the assessee has to declare the additional amount of tax payable.

Thus, the two provisos to section 245C(1) show that Chapter XIX-A, which prescribes a special procedure for assessment by settlement, contemplates a pre-assessment collection of tax. With the filing of the settlement application and after such application is allowed to be proceeded with under section 245D(1), intimation under section 143(1), regular assessment under sections 143(3)/144 and re-assessment under section 147 lose their existence as under sections 245C(1A) and (1B) it is only the income disclosed in the return of income before the A.O. alone which survives for consideration by the Settlement Commission for settling the amount of income which is not disclosed in the return.

Under section 245C(1B)(ii), if the applicant has furnished a return in respect of the total income, whether or not assessment is made in pursuance of the return, the additional amount of income tax payable in respect of the total income disclosed shall be on the aggregate of the total income returned and the income disclosed in his application for settlement as if such aggregate was his total income. This is pre-assessment collection of tax. Such pre-assessment is based on the estimation of the current income and tax thereon by the applicant himself.

Now, when the Settlement Commission accepts the Voluntary Disclosure vide the application for settlement, section 234B(2) steps in. It is important to remember that the assessee is liable to pay advance tax, he commits default in payment to the extent of the undisclosed income but he offers to pay additional income tax then interest has to be calculated in accordance with sections 207, 208 and 234B(2) up to the date on which such tax is paid.

This is not the interest which assessee has to pay after assessment under section 245D(4). Under sections 245C(1B) and (1C) the additional amount of income tax payable on the undisclosed income shall be on the total income as calculated under section 245C(1B). On computation of total income under sections 245C(1B) and (1C), interest follows such computation. It is important to note that interest follows computation of total income. Once such computation takes place under section 245C(1B) then section 234B(2) applies. The said sub-section deals with the situation where before determination of total income under section 143(1) or 143(3) tax is paid under section 140A or otherwise interest shall be calculated in accordance with section 234B(1) up to the date on which tax is so paid. In that sense an application under section 245C(1) is a return. Section 245C(1) deals with computation of total income.

There is one more way of looking at the Act. Chapter XIX-A refers to procedure of settlement (see section 245D(1)). As stated above, section 245D(1) provides for expeditious recovery of tax by way of pre-assessment collection. Interest on default in payment of advance tax comes under sections 234A, 234B, 234C, which fall in Chapter XVII which deals with collection and recovery of tax. It is important to note that interest follows computation of additional payment of income tax under sections 245C(1B) and (1C). This is how sections 234A, 234B and 234C get engrafted into Chapter XIX-A at the stage of section 245D(1). As stated, till the Settlement Commission decides to admit the case under section 245D(1) the proceedings under the normal provisions remain open. But, once the Commission admits the case after being satisfied that the disclosure is full and true then the proceedings commence with the Settlement Commission. In the meantime, applicant has to pay the additional amount of tax with interest without which the application for settlement would not be maintainable. Thus, interest under section 234B would be payable up to the stage of section 245D(1).

Our view is supported by the amendment made by Finance Act of 2007 w.e.f. 1.6.2007 in which interest is required to be paid for maintainability of the Application for Settlement.

The question is – what happens in cases where 90% of the assessed tax is paid but on the basis of the Commission’s order under section 245D(4) the advance tax paid turns out to be less than 90% of the assessed tax as defined in the Explanation to Section 234B(1)?

As held hereinabove, under section 245C(1) read with section 245C(1B)(ii) and section 245C(1C)(b), the additional amount of income tax payable is to be calculated on the aggregate of total income returned and the income disclosed in the settlement application as if such aggregate is the total income. Thus, the scheme of the said sections is based on computation of total income and in that sense we have stated that such application for settlement is akin to a return of income. The said provision deals with “total income”. Thus, as stated above, sections 234A, B and C are applicable up to the stage of section 245D(1) order passed by the Settlement Commission. However, Parliament has not extended the provisions and the liability to pay interest beyond the date of application for settlement. This is the position even after Finance Act of 2007.

Once this position is taken, section 140A is attracted. When an assessee has paid interest under sections 234A, B and C in self-assessment under section 140A, which is similar to the scheme of section 245C(1), and once the Settlement Commission admits the application for settlement, one finds that even under section 140A(1B) interest payable under section 234B has to be computed on an amount equal to the assessed tax as defined in the Explanation to mean tax on the total income as declared in the return. Under sub-section (1B) to Section 140A interest payable under section 234B can also be computed on an amount by which the advance tax paid falls short of the assessed tax as defined in the Explanation thereto.

Thus, there is no provision under Chapter XIX-A or even under section 140A (dealing with self-assessment) to charge interest beyond the date of application for settlement after the same is admitted by the Commission under Section 245D(1). Moreover, as stated above, under the Act, there is a difference between assessment in law [regular assessment or assessment under section 143(1)] and assessment by settlement under Chapter XIX-A. The order under section 245D(4) is not an order of regular assessment. It is neither an order under section 143(1) or 143(3) or 144.

Under sections 139 to 158, the process of assessment involves the filing of the return under section 139 or under section 142; inquiry by the A.O. under sections 142 and 143 and making of the order of assessment by the A.O. under section 143(3) or under section 144 and issuing of notice of demand under section 156 on the basis of the assessment order.

The making of the order of assessment is an integral part of the process of assessment. No such steps are required to be followed in the case of proceedings under Chapter XIX-A. The said Chapter contemplates the taxability determined with respect to undisclosed income only by the process of settlement/ arbitration. Thus, the nature of the orders under sections 143(1), 143(3) and 144 is different from the orders of the Settlement Commission under section 245D(4). Even in Commissioner of Income Tax v. Anjum M.H. Ghaswala and others [252 ITR 1] there is no finding by this Court that the order of Settlement Commission under section 245D(4) is an order of assessment under section 143(3) or under section 144.

In Ghaswala’s case the only question decided by this Court is that the interest under section 234B is mandatory in nature and that Settlement Commission, therefore, had no authority to waive it. Further, as stated above, the jurisdiction of the A.O. is not fettered merely because the applicant has filed the Settlement Application. The Act does not contemplate stay of the proceedings during that period, i.e., when the Settlement Commission is deciding whether to proceed or reject the settlement application.

The jurisdiction of the Settlement Commission to proceed commences only after an order is passed under section 245D(1). That, after making an application for settlement the applicant is not allowed to withdraw it [see section 245C(3)]. Once the case stands admitted, the Settlement Commission shall have exclusive jurisdiction to exercise the powers of the Income Tax Authority. The order of Settlement Commission under section 245D(4) shall be final and conclusive under section 245I subject to two qualifications under which it can be recalled, viz., fraud and misrepresentation but even here it is important to note that under section 245D(7) where the settlement becomes void on account of fraud and misrepresentation the proceedings with respect to the matters covered by the settlement shall be deemed to have been revived from the stage at which the application was allowed to be proceeded with by the Settlement Commission.

This further supports our view that there are two distinct stages under Chapter XIX- A and that the Legislature has not contemplated the levy of interest between order under section 245D(1) stage and section 245D(4) stage. Thus, interest under section 234B will be chargeable till the order of the Settlement Commission under section 245D(1), i.e., admission of the case. Lastly, the expression “interest” in section 245(6A) fastens the liability to pay interest only when the tax payable in pursuance of an order under section 245D(4) is not paid within the specified time and which levy is different from liability to pay interest under section 234B or under section 245D(2C). [See Damani Brothers (supra) at page 485]

III. Whether the Settlement Commission can re-open its concluded proceedings by having recourse to Section 154 of the Act so as to levy interest under section 234B, if it was not done in the original proceedings?

As stated, proceedings before Settlement Commission are similar to arbitration proceedings. It contemplates assessment by settlement and not by way of regular assessment or assessment under section 143(1) or under section 143(3) or under section 144 of the Act. In that sense, it is a Code by itself. It does not begin with the filing of the return but by filing the application for settlement. As stated above, under the Act, procedure for assessment falls in Chapter XIV (in which section 154 falls) which is different from procedure for settlement in Chapter XIX-A in which sections 245C and 245D fall. Provision for levy of interest for default in payment of advance tax under section 234B falls in Chapter XVII [Section F] which deals with collection and recovery of tax which as stated above is incidental to the liability to pay advance tax under section 207 (which is also in Chapter XVII) and to the computation of total income in the manner indicated under Chapter XIX-A vide sections 245C(1B) and 245C(1C) read with the provisos to section 245C(1) on the additional income tax payable on the undisclosed income.

Further, if one examines the provisions of sections 245C(1B) and 245C(1C), one finds that various situations are taken into account while computing the additional amount of tax payable, viz., if the applicant has not filed his returns, if he has filed but orders of assessment are not passed or if the proceedings are pending for re-assessment under section 147 (again in Chapter XIV) or by way of appeal or revision in connection with such re-assessment and the applicant has not furnished his return of total income in which case tax has to be calculated on the aggregate of total income as assessed in the earlier proceedings for assessment under section 143 or under section 144 or under section 147 [see section 245C(1B)].

The point to be noted is that in computation of additional income tax payable by the assessee, there is no mention of section 154. On the contrary, under section 245I the order of the Settlement Commission is made final and conclusive on matters mentioned in the application for settlement except in the two cases of fraud and misrepresentation in which case the matter could be re-opened by way of review or recall. Like ITAT, the Settlement Commission is a quasi-judicial body. Under section 254(2), the ITAT is given the power to rectify but no such power is given to the Settlement Commission. Thus, we hold that Settlement Commission cannot reopen its concluded proceedings by invoking section 154 of the Act. Lastly, one must keep in mind the difference between review/ recall of the order and rectification under section 154. The Schedule of Chapter XIX-A does not contemplate invocation of section 154 otherwise there would be no finality to the assessment by settlement which is different from assessment under Chapter XIV where there is an appeal, revision, etc. Settlement of liability and not determination of liability is the object of Chapter XIX-A. Even otherwise, invocation of section 154 on facts of this batch of cases is not justified.

In this batch of cases, the situation which prevailed when the Settlement Commission waived or reduced interest chargeable under sections 234A and 234B was that a debate was on as to whether the Settlement Commission has the power to reduce or waive interest. It is only after Ghaswala’s case that the law got settled that the nature and the character of the interest was compensatory and mandatory and that the Commission had no such power. But even in Ghaswala, the question as to whether such interest under section 234B should run up to the order under section 245D(1) or up to the date of the order under section 234D(4) was not decided. In fact, that was the reason for the Orders of Reference to the Constitution Bench of this Court vide orders dated 14.12.2004 and 20.1.2005.

There is one more reason for this Reference. In the case of CIT v. Hindustan Bulk Carrier [(2003) 259 ITR 449], a 3-Judge Bench of this Court, by majority, held that where, upon the Order of the Settlement Commission under section 245D(4), there arises a deficit in the payment of advance tax under section 208, the end point or the terminus of the period for which interest has to be paid under section 234B on the deficit is the date on which the Settlement Commission passes the order under section 245D(4). This decision was delivered on 17.12.2002 after the judgment of this Court in Ghaswala (supra). On the same day, the same Bench in the case of Damani Brothers (supra) held that interest charged under section 234B becomes payable on the income disclosed in the return and the income disclosed before the Settlement Commission; that, such interest is chargeable till the Commission acts in terms of section 245D(1) and that after the Settlement Commission allows the application for settlement to be proceeded with there will be no further charge of interest under section 234B. Thus, even on the question of terminus there was lot of controversy and in the circumstances, we are of the view that invocation of section 154 (held to be inapplicable to Chapter XIX-A proceedings) cannot be justified.


(1) Sections 234A, 234B and 234C are applicable to the proceedings of the Settlement Commission under Chapter XIX-A of the Act to the extent indicated hereinabove.

(2) Consequent upon conclusion (1), the terminal point for the levy of interest under section 234B would be up to the date of the order under section 245D(1) and not up to the date of the Order of Settlement under section 245D(4).

(3) The Settlement Commission cannot re-open its concluded proceedings by invoking section 154 of the Act so as to levy interest under section 234B, particularly, in view of section 245I.

See the following judgment: Brij Lal & Ors. v. Commissioner of Income Tax, Jalandhar (Supreme Court of India, 2010)

Author: Vikrant Narayan Vasudeva
Photo by Stuart Rankin/ CC BY-NC 2.0